Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia Type 3 Due to ANO10 Mutations: Delineation and Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study
Renaud M, Anheim M, Kamsteeg EJ, Mallaret M, Mochel F, Vermeer S, Drouot N, Pouget J, Redin C, Salort-Campana E, Kremer HP, Verschuuren-Bemelmans CC, Muller J, Scheffer H, Durr A, Tranchant C, Koenig M
Importance ANO10 mutations have been reported to cause a novel form of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA). Our objective was to report 9 ataxic patients carrying 8 novel ANO10mutations to improve the delineation of this form of ARCA and provide genotype-phenotype correlation.
Observations The ANO10 gene has been sequenced in 186 consecutive patients with ARCA. The detailed phenotype of patients with ANO10 mutations was investigated and compared with the 12 previously reported cases. The mean age at onset was 33 years (range, 17-43 years), and the disease progression was slow. Corticospinal tract signs were frequent, including extensor plantar reflexes and/or diffuse tendon reflexes and/or spasticity. No patient in our series had peripheral neuropathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brains of our patients revealed marked cerebellar atrophy. The most frequent mutation, a mononucleotide expansion from a polyA repeat tract (c.132dupA) that causes protein truncation, was never observed in homozygosity. Only 2 truncating mutations were reported in homozygosity, one of which (c.1150-1151del) was associated with juvenile or adolescent onset and mental retardation, whereas we show that the presence of at least 1 missense or in-frame mutation is associated with adult onset and slow progression.
Conclusions and Relevance An ANO10 mutation is responsible for ARCA that is mainly characterized by cerebellar atrophy and lack of peripheral neuropathy. We therefore suggest naming this entity autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 3 (ARCA3).