Triheptanoin improves brain energy metabolism in patients with Huntington disease
- Isaac Mawusi Adanyeguh, MS,
- Daisy Rinaldi, PhD,
- Pierre-Gilles Henry, PhD,
- Samantha Caillet, MS,
- Romain Valabregue, PhD,
- Alexandra Durr, MD, PhD and
- Fanny Mochel, MD, PhD
Objective: Based on our previous work in Huntington disease (HD) showing improved energy metabolism in muscle by providing substrates to the Krebs cycle, we wished to obtain a proof-of-concept of the therapeutic benefit of triheptanoin using a functional biomarker of brain energy metabolism validated in HD.
Methods: We performed an open-label study using 31P brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) before (rest), during (activation), and after (recovery) a visual stimulus. We performed 31P brain MRS in 10 patients at an early stage of HD and 13 controls. Patients with HD were then treated for 1 month with triheptanoin after which they returned for follow-up including 31P brain MRS scan.
Results: At baseline, we confirmed an increase in Pi/PCr ratio during brain activation in controls—reflecting increased adenosine triphosphate synthesis—followed by a return to baseline levels during recovery (p = 0.013). In patients with HD, we validated the existence of an abnormal brain energy profile as previously reported. After 1 month, this profile remained abnormal in patients with HD who did not receive treatment. Conversely, the MRS profile was improved in patients with HD treated with triheptanoin for 1 month with the restoration of an increased Pi/PCr ratio during visual stimulation (p = 0.005).
Conclusion: This study suggests that triheptanoin is able to correct the bioenergetic profile in the brain of patients with HD at an early stage of the disease.